The State of Tamil Nadu can be an example for consideration of non-sewered sanitation options. The State has a mix of both sewered and on-site sanitation systems (OSS). Considering over 45 per cent of the State’s urban population relies on on-site sanitation systems, the Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) recognised the importance of Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) (or non- sewered sanitation) as an economical and sustainable complement to networked sanitation systems. The State, therefore, adopted the Operative Guidelines for Septage Management in September 2014, and subsequently, in 2018, a State Investment Plan (SIP) for the creation of Fecal Sludge Treatment Plants (FSTP) and scaling of FSM. Currently, the GoTN is working on the implementation of FSTPs and scale up of non-sewered sanitation solutions across the State. The SIP can be accessed here.