Kakkaman – A Behaviour Change Communication Campaign for FSM
Fecal Sludge Management (FSM) is an important emerging area of work, and the related solutions are gradually gaining traction with various state governments in India. The Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) aims to effect improvements along the urban sanitation chain and scale FSM across 663 towns in the state. However, the sustainability of such efforts requires not just infrastructure, but also change in behaviour and practices that creates a supportive environment and establish ownership towards safe sanitation among all stakeholders. The ‘Kakkaman Campaign’ which is a Behaviour Change Communications campaign is designed to address this.
To promote a positive behaviour change towards sanitation, GoTN attempted to give a human face to sanitation by creating Kakkaman (meaning Shit-Man), the state’s own sanitation mascot. A BCC campaign centred on the fun and friendly ‘Kakkaman’ has been developed to take key messages on FSM and the full cycle of sanitation (FCS) to the people of the state, in two phases.
Primary and secondary research indicated the prevalent taboo and stigma around sanitation. TNUSSP hence developed a BCC strategy aimed at:
- Bringing ‘sanitation out of the closet’ and making it an everyday topic.
- Making consumers as well as Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) embrace FSM with an increased sense of ownership.
Trichy Campaign Pictures
The first set of messages were broad, introducing the concept of sanitation and FCS, urging people to think beyond ‘toilets’. The second set of messages were designed to inform the people of Tamil Nadu about the upcoming treatment facilities near them, the importance of their functioning and usage, including a joint call to action to take part in the Kakkaman campaign.
Kakkaman CTPT Poster
TNUSSP, 2018. Assessment of Behaviour Change Communication Programme: TNUSSP Phase I.
TNUSSP, 2016. Behaviour Change Communication Strategy: Fecal Sludge Management in Tamil Nadu.